Psychophysiological Effects of Controlled Respiration and Mindfulness

Not Recruiting

Trial ID: NCT05304000


The investigators aim to understand the effectiveness of 3 types of breathwork exercises and a mindfulness meditation control on improving psychological and physiological measures of wellbeing. The interventions will be delivered remotely and effects are monitored through daily surveys and physiological monitoring with WHOOP wristband through a 28-day period. The information gained will help develop the most effective remote interventions for lowering stress and improving wellbeing. The study will be run on a healthy general population. The three breathing conditions were 1) Cyclic Sighing, which emphasizes relatively prolonged exhalations, 2) Box Breathing, which is equal duration of inhalations, breath retentions, exhalations and breath retentions, and 3) Cyclic Hyperventilation with Retention, with longer, more intense inhalations and shorter, passive exhalations. Mindfulness Meditation practice involved passive attention to breath.

Official Title

Psychophysiological Effects of Controlled Respiration: Noninvasive Relaxation Techniques

Stanford Investigator(s)

David Spiegel
David Spiegel

Jack, Lulu and Sam Willson Professor of Medicine


Inclusion Criteria:

   - Age ≥ 18

   - Not pregnant

   - Able to follow basic instruction for prescreen and scheduling

   - Compliant with investigator instructions during the consent process and participation
   in the study

Exclusion Criteria:

   - Age <18

   - Pregnant

   - Non-English speaking

   - Anyone with personality disorders or psychosis such as schizoaffective disorder

   - Demonstrates evidence of severe psychiatric disorder in prescreen or email contact (as
   judged by Dr. Spiegel)

   - Glaucoma

   - History of seizures

   - Suicidal

   - Heart disease (based on PI's clinical judgement, dependent on the severity of the

   - Current untreated psychosis, or bipolar disorder, or substance/alcohol
   abuse/dependence (based on PI's clinical judgement, dependent on the severity of the

   - Any Medical condition that could be exasperated by study participation (based on PI's
   clinical judgement)

   - Non USA mailing address to receive the WHOOP strap

   - Vision or hearing impairment severe enough to interfere with study participation,


behavioral: Mindfulness Meditation

behavioral: Cyclic Sighing Breathing

behavioral: Box Breathing

behavioral: Cyclic Hyperventilation with Retention

Not Recruiting

Contact Information

Stanford University
School of Medicine
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305