Trial Search Results

Sex Differences in Coronary Pathophysiology

This is a research study evaluating possible causes of chest pain (or an anginal equivalent, such as fatigue resulting in a decrease in exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, or back, shoulder, neck, or jaw pain) in people with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease on their coronary angiogram (pictures of the blood vessels in the heart). The purpose of the research study is to determine if there is diffuse atherosclerosis (plaque) not appreciated by angiography, or if the coronary endothelium (lining of the blood vessels in the heart) and/or microcirculation (small vessels in the heart that are not easily seen with an angiogram) are not functioning properly in those who have chest pain (or an anginal equivalent), but normal coronary arteries on angiography. Specifically, we are interested if these findings are more common in women than men.

Stanford is currently accepting patients for this trial.

Lead Sponsor:

Stanford University


  • Procedure: 30 cc blood draw
  • Procedure: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)
  • Procedure: Coronary pressure/flow wire testing
  • Procedure: Coronary pressure/flow testing: Acetycholine challenge
  • Procedure: Procedure: Coronary pressure/flow testing: Nitroglycerin challenge
  • Procedure: Procedure: Procedure: Coronary pressure/flow testing: Adenosine challenge


Inclusion Criteria:

   1. Patient referred for elective coronary angiography because of a reasonable clinical
   suspicion of coronary ischemia.

   2. Presence of angina or an anginal equivalent (including chest, back, shoulder, arm,
   neck, jaw discomfort, or shortness of breath brought on by physical exertion,
   emotional stress, or certain times of day/month).

Exclusion Criteria:1) Asymptomatic (such as a pre-op cath)

2) Status-post heart transplant

3) Status-post coronary artery bypass grafting

4) Age <18

5) Renal insufficiency (creatinine >1.5)

6) Presence of an acute coronary syndrome (STEMI or NSTEMI), Tako-tsubo, an abnormal
ejection fraction (EF<55%), cardiogenic shock, or recent VT/VF

7) Presence of another likely explanation of chest pain, such as pulmonary hypertension or
aortic stenosis

8) History of adverse reaction to any of the medications being used (acetylcholine,
nitroglycerin, adenosine, or heparin)

9) Currently taking vasoactive medication (such as nitroglycerin)

10) Inability to provide an informed consent, including an inability to speak, read, or
understand English, Spanish, Chinese, Farsi, Japanese, Korean, Russian, or Vietnamese

11) A hearing impairment that won't allow for a typical verbal conversation or a visual
impairment that won't allow for reading of the written consent

12) Participation in another study (with the exception of the Stanford Gene-PAD study)

13) A potentially vulnerable subject (including minors, pregnant women, economically and
educationally disadvantaged, decisionally impaired, and homeless people)

Ages Eligible for Study

18 Years - N/A

Genders Eligible for Study


Now accepting new patients

Contact Information

Stanford University
School of Medicine
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305
Homa Tavana