Trial Search Results

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Affect on Kidneys in Endurance Distances

The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their impact on renal function and/or contribution to exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) during an ultramarathon foot race. There is currently much debate over whether NSAID ingestion during endurance events contributes to acute kidney injury. Endurance events often ignite a "perfect storm" of physiologic insults- heat stress, dehydration, and myopathy- which can all negatively impact kidney function. There is a concern that NSAIDs may further potentiate these negative effects as well as contribute to EAH through its anti-diuretic affect. To date, no powered, prospective study has ever examined the effects of NSAIDs on either of these two biochemical outcomes

Ultramarathon endurance events, defined as any race longer than a marathon (26.2 miles), are increasing in popularity, with a 10% increase in annual participants, and more than 69,000 finishers worldwide in 2013. Considerable literature has documented alterations in serum biochemical profiles of these endurance athletes, with consistent evidence of elevated serum creatinine (Cr) levels in healthy race finishers as well as those seeking medical care. While acute renal failure in ultramarathon runners is a rare occurrence, acute kidney injury is common, ranging from 34% in a single-stage ultramarathon to 55-80% in multi-stage ultramarathons. The evidence is equivocal regarding NSAID ingestion and AKI. One study showed that runners who ingested NSAIDs prior to marathons had greater post-race creatinine levels than matched controls as well as higher rates of hospitalization and acute renal failure. However, this contrasts with several other studies that showed a marked lack of difference in creatinine levels or development of acute kidney injury between NSAID users and non-users during ultramarathons. The only randomized trial to date on this subject found no difference in serum creatinine levels between the NSAID and placebo groups at ultramarathon race end, however conclusions were limited by a small unpowered sample size.

Exercise associated hyponatremia (EAH), defined as a serum sodium concentration below 135mEq/L, is recognized as a relatively common issue in endurance running events. The incidence of EAH varies depending upon the distance of the race, with reported values of 3-28% for marathons, 23 - 38% for triathlons and 4-51% in single-stage ultramarathons. EAH is likely under-diagnosed as athletes are often asymptomatic. While EAH most often manifests as non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fatigue, it can be a potentially fatal disease that can progress to encephalopathy, seizures, pulmonary edema, and death. There have been no large prospective studies examining the relationship between EAH and NSAID ingestion.

Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

Lead Sponsor:

Stanford University

Stanford Investigator(s):


  • Drug: Ibuprofen
  • Drug: Placebo


Phase 3


Inclusion Criteria:

   - Any participant in a RacingThePlanet sanctioned event who understands the consent form
   in English.

Exclusion Criteria:

   - Allergic to any form of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory

   - Taken a NSAID or steroid in prior 12 hours

   - 1 kidney

   - Known to be pregnant or suspected to be pregnant

Ages Eligible for Study

18 Years - 75 Years

Genders Eligible for Study


Not currently accepting new patients for this trial

Contact Information

Stanford University
School of Medicine
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305